Source List

1. US Internet Users Deeply Worried About Digital Privacy

McCarthy, Alison. “US Internet Users Deeply Worried About Digital Privacy.” EMarketer. EMarketer, 02 Feb. 2017. Web. 15 Feb. 2017.

The article was published on February 2, 2017 by Alison McCarthy under the publisher eMarketer. eMarketer is a “market research company” that gives “trends related to digital marketing, media and commerce.” Essentially what they do is look at data they gather about marketing and media mainly only dealing with digital platforms. The most important information that this article points out is that the people trust corporations more than they trust the government. 25% of people who were asked the question of would you be willing to share your personal information in exchange for some sort of reward said yes they would. This raises the question of “do people care about their privacy online?”

The article did pull in information from different surveys from different organizations who completed these surveys. They have put the additional sources in info graphics on the side as well as including them within the actually article itself. Reading this source makes me want to research more on how many people actually care about privacy. Also, it would be interesting to see how much of their privacy people are willing to give up on the internet.

2. Data Doppelgängers and the Uncanny Valley of Personalization

Watson, Sara M. “Data Doppelgängers and the Uncanny Valley of Personalization.” The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 16 June 2014. Web. 04 Mar. 2017.

Sara M. Watson, who is the author, and her friend, Jean, both received an ad on an anorexia research study on Facebook but at first it was only Jean and she thought it was because of the stuff she has been posting. Once Watson got the ad she questioned it and found out it was for women between the ages of 18-45 in the Boston area. Watson mentions that she is supposed to see ads online that are based off of her data that the ads gather. She mentions that her data is made up of “browsing history, my status updates, my GPS locations, my responses to marketing mail, my credit card transactions, and my public records.”

She likes when the ads don’t really know her but she said “yet it is unnerving when something is misdirected at me.” Watson talks about how she likes the personalized ads because of a “belief in individualism.” Sometimes these ads can mess with one’s sense of who they are. She goes on to say “it’s hard to tell whether the algorithm doesn’t know us at all, or if it actually knows us better than we know ourselves.” The problem with advertisements tailored to our personal data is we don’t know what standard to hold it at. “Data likeness can’t be seen or touched, but neither can our sense of ourselves.” Ads that are chosen based on our data can provide a sense of familiarity like a home but the home is a place you seek for privacy. Personalized ads create an anxiety that the user is being surveyed.

3. UN Adopts Internet Privacy Resolution

“UN Adopts Internet Privacy Resolution.” Information Management Journal, vol. 48, no. 1, Jan/Feb2014, p. 16. EBSCOhost, librarylink.uncc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.librarylink.uncc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=lih&AN=94707910&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

The United Nations established that privacy is a right “needed to be protected online and offline.” The article was published to the January/February in 2014 of the Information Management Journal. The author isn’t anywhere to be found besides the fact it was written in the Information Management Journal. This was published by ARMA International which is a nonprofit that manages records and information usually dealing with legality and regulatory changes.

They do refer to Ponemon Institute in their article in a graph. Ponemon Institute is a company that “measures trust in privacy and security” which is very relevant to this article. They also mention quotes from the United Nations themselves. The new perspective this article gives me is that the United Nations recognizes the need for privacy on the internet. Not only the need for privacy but they talk about it as it being a human right.

4. Provision of Internet privacy and market conditions: An empirical analysis

Park, Yong J. “Provision of Internet Privacy and Market Conditions: an Empirical Analysis.” Telecommunications Policy. 35.7 (2011): 650-662. Print.

This article was more of a research based work that was filled with facts and information. One of the most surprising pieces of information from the article is how much information and privacy you as a user are giving up by going to certain websites. This article is from 2011. It was published in the Telecommunications Policy journal under the publisher Elsevier. Telecommunications Policy is a journal that focuses on “the roles of information and communication technologies in the economy and society.” Telecommunications Policy of the United States is a set of laws created to regulate communication companies with the public interest as the priority. The author, Yong Jin Park, is a professor for the School of Communications at Howard University who has published many articles in journals and done a good amount of research dealing with “privacy, new media use”. The new perspective that this article gives is what actions needs to happen to help create more privacy for the user on the internet. The author suggested that the Federal Trade Commission start taking action with websites.

5. Internet Privacy: Who Sets the Global Standard?

Rossi, Agustín. “Internet Privacy: Who Sets the Global Standard?” The International Spectator. 49.1 (2014): 65-80. Print.

In the article the author talks about how Europe has the best privacy laws and standard. This is made possible through the European Union and their ability to create and enforce laws all over Europe. However it is easy for companies to gather data and intrude on privacy of people within these countries as long as they are in another country where they are fine. Therefore Rossi goes on to say that these laws been formed around these companies and they set the privacy standard.

“The EU is the global standard setter for privacy and data protection.” In this direct quote they are talking about how the European Union has a lead role in establishing privacy for the average citizen. Many people are trying to get the United States Government to help follow and model the European union with their privacy laws. A lot of companies place data distribution centers in Ireland because they don’t have to leave European soil and they do not have to comply with the EU’s privacy laws.

The United States is not following their European counterparts in creating well thought out and helpful internet privacy laws. The United States is making progress but not enough. Many companies are avoiding laws and standards set by the EU for privacy by going elsewhere.

The author is Agustín Rossi who is a PhD candidate at the European University Institute. He is putting together this paper to help him learn and he is also passionate about this kind of stuff. He might be biased due to the fact he is European but he is making good points that people need to see.

6. Why privacy matters

Greenwald, Glenn. “Why Privacy Matters.” TED. Oct. 2014. Lecture.

Plenty of people on the internet feel that when they browse they feel “alone.” The debate of privacy has really been sparked because of Edward Snowden who exposed how the United States had surveillance on everyday people. Greenwald goes on to talk about the common statement that people say that they don’t have anything to hide. The problem that it implies is that there is only good people and bad people. The bad people have something to hide so therefore its ok for there to be surveillance.

7. WikiLeaks claims to reveal how CIA hacks TVs and phones all over the world

Operations, To Hide Its. “CIA Hacks TVs, Phones All over the World, WikiLeaks Claims.”CNNMoney. Cable News Network, 8 Mar. 2017. Web. 11 Mar. 2017.

This article was written on March 8, 2017 by Jose Pagliery and it talks about the recent WikiLeaks information gathered about the CIA documents spying in on everyday citizens. This not only shows the risk of lack of privacy but also shows the new generation of warfare which is cyber warfare. The CIA has allegedly had the ability to remote hack devices such as phones, and smart TVs, along with many other devices. They could listen in and obviously invade privacy. This was information reveled in the documents obtained by WikiLeaks.

8. How the Internet of Things will affect security & privacy

Meola, Andrew. “How the Internet of Things Will Affect Security & Privacy.” Business Insider. Business Insider, 19 Dec. 2016. Web. 09 Apr. 2017.

This article was published Dec. 19, 2016 and written by Andrew Meola and he goes into depths talking about how IoT (internet of things) will change the way privacy effects us. He talks about how IoT’s give out a lot of information for people to possibly hack and take from us the consumers. He mentions that we put a lot of trust into the corporations that we are giving information to by just using our house.

9. Here’s Why AT&T Internet Customers Won’t Pay Extra for Privacy Anymore

Pressman, Aaron. “Here’s Why AT&T Internet Customers Won’t Pay Extra for Privacy Anymore.” AT&T Stops Charging More for Internet Customers Who Value Privacy. Fortune, 30 Sept. 2016. Web. 14 April 2017.

This article was written by Aaron Pressman and published on Sep 30, 2016. It talks about how AT&T customers can sell their privacy to AT&T. They want the ability to gather data from their users of the phone, internet, and cable so AT&T is willing to cut what they are charging you in order to legally obtain this information. They said they will not however track sensitive information like online banking. They just want to be able to put out the most user personalized ads.

10. We can fight terror without sacrificing our rights

MacKinnonv, Rebecca. “We can fight terror without sacrificing our rights.” TED. Jun. 2016. Lecture.

Much of the issues and problems that come with privacy is national security vs privacy. How much privacy is given up for national security and how much national security is given up for privacy. A lot of journalist and bloggers have received threats from terrorist groups. When fighting terrorist groups, anti-terrorist means and measures can quickly turn into something that would be used against the people. People have the ability now a days to report extremist activity to the government and if deemed to be apart of extremist behavior could be censored on the internet. A lot of journalists have been straight slaughtered by extremist organizations and the governments of where it has taken place have done little about it. Just because terrorist, “the bad guys”, are using encryption leads these governments to try to ban it from actually happening. Many social media companies are taking down accounts related to Isis like for instance a reporter who had isis flags in pictures because he was reporting on Isis had his facebook account taken down due to the isis flags. Companies that have this power need to have more transparency. People have to hold these companies and governments accountable.

11. The Strange Way That People Perceive Privacy Online

Waddell, Kaveh. “The Strange Way That People Perceive Privacy Online.” The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 12 Sept. 2016. Web. 04 May 2017.

Since the very beginning of Facebook they were being sued on how they handle personal information that they gain. Many companies use user contributed content to grow and make money off of just like Facebook. Facebook has been known to infringe on peoples privacy with using personal data to personalize ads. However many people don’t read the terms and agreements that websites like facebook have that users agree to, to even use their site. Within many companies terms and agreements there is stuff we agree to but if we knew it was in there we would not agree to it which is why many people lose trust into companies. Mamonov mentions that we need to modify people’s behavior by exposing them to a stimuli relating to security which would provoke the user to care more about their security which would push people to make stronger passwords and better security oriented choices. People tend to create stronger passwords if it is protecting more sensitive information. When shown information about corporate hackings people would tend to give less information and they would use stronger passwords. When shown stories about government survelience people actually tended to create weaker passwords and this is because people felt helpless and did not think that a strong password would actually help them from not be surveyed.

12. Internet Privacy Concerns: An Integrated Conceptualization and Four Empirical Studies

Hong, Weiyin and Thong, James Y.L., Internet Privacy Concerns: An Integrated Conceptualization and Four Empirical Studies. MIS Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 1 (2013) pp. 275-298.

This excerpt from a journal was written in 2013 by two professors, one at the university of Nevada and one at the university of Hong Kong. It was published in a peer reviewed journal, Management Information Systems Quarterly. The internet of things is being given a lot of attention because a good amount of information is being gathered and possibly stored. Companies are using data gathered on the individual. The individuals become content providers to the other companies as personal information is becoming more and more valuable. Many lawsuits have sprung up between these information mining companies that people believe have had their privacy broken unlawfully. The interest of privacy by the public has also risen recently. Most people expect their information to be protected but usually aren’t concerned with their information being taken. The problem with the internet privacy concern is that many people view and want privacy in many different ways.

13. Internet Privacy Rights: Rights to Protect Autonomy

Bernal. Internet Privacy Rights. N.p.: Cambridge UP, 2014. Print.

This book was written by Paul Bernal who is a professor of Information Technology and media law at East Anglia Law School. It was published in 2014. We are at a point in our lives where privacy on the internet has never mattered this much. Our autonomy on the internet affects our emotions directly and indirectly. Privacy can be broken by companies, governments, and just people. People want privacy from the government, and some want privacy from identity thieves. The governments of the world have become accustom to surveillance electronically. The internet as it stands now is no where close to being private which is a problem.

Commentary on Arrangement

The sources that I have gathered are arranged in a way that should make it easiest to read. Originally they were just arranged based on when I found them. Later I arranged them into categories that would make them easier to read. I started organizing the different sources by how privacy affects people, especially the first and second source. They both talk about how internet privacy affects people differently and their experiences. Then from sources 3 to 6 they talk about internet privacy globally and support of internet privacy especially with the United NAtions establishing it a human right. Sources 7 and 8 talk about the different things, mainly the internet of things, accessible by different people and the information they can gather. 9 is kind of separate from the rest because it talks about AT&T charging less if they can access your information and data. The rest of the sources talk about how we do not have to give up anything to gather information on the “bad guys” and just privacy in general. The sources were arranged into these categories and this order because it is very similar to my thought process and the order of my thoughts. It will help the reader understand what I went through in my research.

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